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If you are an absolute beginner on Mac, you can start by watching the tutorial video from Apple.

Then, you can move on to my list about things I need to know to become a programmer on a Mac.

1. Capture screenshots with Command 3 and Command 4.

Command is the key with the ⌘ symbol.

⌘3      for  printing a screen
⌘4      for  printing a section on the screen.

These functions are similar to the infamous Snipping Tool on Windows. 

2. Terminal is the new Command Prompt.

There are many ways for customizing the Terminal's background color, text color, prompt text, transparency.

You can create customizations by using the menu > Terminal > Preferences > Settings tab as I did:

Then, you can save this setting for later use:

My prompt contains only the ~ character, which represents my home folder. This is equivalent to C:\Users\ABC.XYZ in Windows. Your prompt text should be different but I will show you how to customize the text to match mine later.

3. View and edit any text file with nano.

This command is comparable to Notepad in MS DOS.

The .bash_profile is a special file, which is similar to Autoexec.bat file in Windows. However, it is executed every time  I launch a new Terminal instance.

The nano screen:

Once you are done with editing the .bash_profile file, use Control X to exit. If it prompts you (at the bottom of the Terminal window) to save changes, press Y for saving.

4. Change your default Terminal prompt.

My main reason is that I want to know what goes into my Terminal prompt, because I am a programmer. So, I follow this excellent article: Change Your Default Terminal Prompt.

Once I can change the prompt to $ sign, I use a drag-and-drop generator to create my own pattern:

5. Run a command as Administrator user: sudo

You can add sudo in front of a command to execute that command as the superuser. By default, sudo requires that users authenticate themselves with a password.

For example, to remove/delete a non-empty directory, you can issue this command in the Terminal: